Professor Andrew Protheroe

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Professor Andrew Protheroe is a Medical Oncologist within the University of Oxford department of Oncology at the Oxford Cancer and Haematology Centre. He has specialised in Urological Oncology since 2001.  He trained at St Thomas’s Hospital in London and after general medical training in London, trained in Oncology at St James’s University Hospital in Leeds.

His PhD was in immunology (immune reconstitution following high dose chemotherapy) and the research was at Leeds and at the National Cancer Institute in Amsterdam.   He has been Clinical Director of Oncology and chair of the Oxford Cancer Directorate Therapeutics Committee and member of the Oxfordshire Cancer Treatment Panel.  Also the lead clinician for testicular cancer with the Thames Valley Network.

Clinical Research Interests

His research interests include clinical development of novel therapies in urological cancer, he also has an interest in generating clinical data for research and database development.  He has been a member of the NCRI CSG for both Renal and Bladder cancer. Currently a member of the chemotherapy sub-group of the bladder CSG and the Testicular Cancer NCRI CSG since 2014. Currently Co-Clinical director for the NIHR (National Institute for Health Research) Thames Valley and South Midlands LCRN (Local Clinical Research Network) and Lead Clinician for Late Phase Oncology research within Oncology at Oxford.


  1. Geldart T, Chester J, Casbard A, Crabb S, Elliott T, Protheroe A, Huddart RA, Mead G, Barber J, Jones RJ, Smith J, Cowles R, Evans J, Griffiths G SUCCINCT: An Open-label, Single-arm, Non-randomised, Phase 2 Trial of Gemcitabine and Cisplatin Chemotherapy in Combination with Sunitinib as First-line Treatment for Patients with Advanced Urothelial Carcinoma. Eur Urol. 2014 Nov 20. [Epub ahead of print]
  2. Kollmannsberger C, Tandstad T, Bedard PL, Cohn-Cedermark G, Chung PW, Jewett MA, Powles T, Warde PR, Daneshmand S, Protheroe A, Tyldesley S, Black PC, Chi K, So AI, Moore MJ, Nichols CR. Patterns of Relapse in Patients With Clinical Stage I Testicular Cancer Managed With Active Surveillance. J Clin Oncol. 2014 Aug 18. [Epub ahead of print]
  3. Fizazi K, Massard C, Bono P, Jones R, Kataja V, James N, Garcia JA, Protheroe A, Tammela TL, Elliott T, Mattila L, Aspegren J, Vuorela A, Langmuir P, Mustonen M; for the ARADES study group. Activity and safety of ODM-201 in patients with progressive metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer (ARADES): an open-label phase 1 dose-escalation and randomised phase 2 dose expansion trial. Lancet Oncol. 2014 Jun 25. pii: S1470-2045(14)70240-2. [Epub ahead of print].
  4. Chitnis MM, Lodhia KA, Aleksic T, Gao S, Protheroe AS, Macaulay VM. IGF-1R inhibition enhances radiosensitivity and delays double-strand break repair by both non-homologous end-joining and homologous recombination. Oncogene. 2013 Nov Epub ahead of print.
  5. Powles T, Sarwar N, Jones R, Wilson P, Boleti E, Protheroe A, Crabb S, Shamash J, Stockdale A, Lim L, Nathan P, Chowdury S. The hazards of cross comparing the drug toxicity results from different trials in metastatic renal cancer: in response to a letter from Dr. Catalá-López. Eur J Cancer. 2013 Mar;49(4):986-7.
  6. Macaulay VM, Middleton MR, Protheroe AS, Tolcher A, Dieras V, Sessa C, Bahleda R, Blay JY, LoRusso P, Mery-Mignard D, Soria JC. Phase I study of humanized monoclonal antibody AVE1642 directed against the type 1 insulin-like growth factor receptor (IGF-1R), administered in combination with anticancer therapies to patients with advanced solid tumors. Ann Oncol. 2013 Mar; 24(3):784-91.
  7. Biswas S, Charlesworth PJ, Turner GD, Leek R, Thamboo PT, Campo L, Turley H, Dildey P, Protheroe A, Cranston D, Gatter KC, Pezzella F, Harris AL (2012) CD31 angiogenesis and combined expression of HIR-1a and HIF-2a are prognostic in primary clear-cell renal cell carcinoma (CC-RCC), but HIFa transcriptional products are not: implications for antiangiogenic trials and HIFa biomarker studies in primary CC-RCC. Carcinogenesis. 2012 Sep;33 (9):1717-25.
  8. Powles T, Sarwar N, Jones R, Wilson P, Boleti E, Protheroe A, Crabb SJ, Shamash J, Stockdale A, Rashid S, Nathan P, Chowdury S. An indirect comparison of the toxicity of Sunitinib and Pazopanib in metastatic clear cell renal cancer. Eur J Cancer. 2012 Jul 3. Epub 2012 Jul 4.
  9. James ND, Sydes MR, Mason MD, Clarke NW, Anderson J, Dearnaley DP, Dwyer J, Jovic G, Ritchie AW, Russell JM, Sanders K, Thalmann GN, Bertelli G, Birtle AJ, O'Sullivan JM, Protheroe A, Sheehan D, Srihari N, Parmar MK; Celecoxib plus hormone therapy versus hormone therapy alone for hormone-sensitive prostate cancer: first results from the STAMPEDE multiarm, multistage, randomised controlled trial. STAMPEDE investigators. Lancet Oncol. 2012 May;13(5):549-58.
  10. Charlesworth PJS, Gray RHR, Blick C, Kilbey N, Protheroe A, Crew JP (2012) Early recurrence of non-muscle invasive bladder cancer as a clinical marker of a poor prognosis and cancer-specific survival. BJMSU
  11. Blick C, Hall P, Pwint T, Al-Terkait F, Crew J, Powles T, Macaulay V, Munro N, Douglas D, Kilbey N, Protheroe A, Chester JD (2012) Accelerated Methotrexate, Vinblastine, Doxorubicin, and Cisplatin (MVAC) as neoadjuvant chemotherapy for patients with muscle invasive transitional cell carcinoma. Cancer. 2012 Aug 15; 118 (16):3920-7.
  12. Patel N, Cranston D, Akhtar MZ, George C, Jones A, Leiblich A, Protheroe A, Sullivan M. Active surveillance of small renal masses offers short-term oncological efficacy equivalent to radical and partial nephrectomy. BJU Int. 2012 May 4.
  13. Mulders P, Hawkins R, Nathan P, de Jong I, Osanto S, Porfiri E, Protheroe A, van Herpen CM, Mookerjee B, Pike L, Jürgensmeier JM, Gore ME. Cediranib monotherapy in patients with advanced renal cell carcinoma: Results of a randomized phase II study. Eur J Cancer. 2012; 48 (4):527-37.
  14. Khan OA, Blann AD, Payne MJ, Middleton MR, Protheroe AS, Talbot DC, Taylor M, Kirichek O, Han C, Patil M, Harris AL. Continuous low-dose cyclophosphamide and methotrexate combined with celecoxib for patients with advanced cancer. Br J Cancer 2011 Jun 7:104(12):1822-7.
  15. Maclennan SJ, Maclennan SJ, Imamura M, Omar MI, Vale L, Lam T, Royle P, Royle J, Swami S, Pickard R, McClinton S, Griffiths TR, Dahm P, N’dow J: and the UCAN Care Pathway Development Group. Urological cancer care pathways: development and use in the context of systematic reviews and clinical practice guidelines. World J Urol. 2011 Jun;29(3):291-301
  16. Shamash J, Powles T, Sarker SJ, Protheroe A, Mithal N, Mills R, Beard R, Wilson P, Tranter N, O'Brien N, McFaul S, Oliver T. A multi-centre randomised phase III trial of Dexamethasone vs Dexamethasone and diethylstilbestrol in castration-resistant prostrate cancer: immediated vs deferred Diethylstibestrol. Br J Cancer. 2011 Feb 15; 104(4):620-8.
  17. Comins C, Spicer J, Protheroe A, Roulstone V, Twigger K, White CL, Vile R, Melcher A, Coffey M, Mettinger K, Nuovo GJ, Cohn D, Phelps MA, Harrington K, Pandha HS. (2010) REO-10: A Phase 1 Study of intravenous Reovirus and Docetaxel in Patients with Advanced Cancer. Clin Cancer Res. 2010 Nov 15:16(22): 5564-72
  18. Aleksic T, Chitnis MM, Perestenko OV, Gao S, Thomas PH, Turner GD, Protheroe AS, Howarth M, Macaulay VM. (2010) Type 1 insulin-like growth factor receptor tanslocates to the nucleus of human tumor cells: Cancer Res. 70(16):6412-9
  19. Ritchie RW, Leslie T, Phillips R, Wu F, Illing R, Ter Haar G, Protheroe A, Cranston D. (2010) Extracorporeal high intensity focused ultrasound for renal tumours: a 3-year follow-up. BJU Int. 2010 Oct:106(7):1004-9.
  20. Charlesworth PJ, Kilbey N, Taylor M, Leek R, Cranston D, Turner G, Crew J, Harris A, Protheroe A., (2009) Automated uro-oncology data collection: the Cancer Research Uro-Oncology Database. BJU Int. 2010 Jun:105(12):1663-6.
  21. Yuen J.S, Akkaya E, Wang Y, Takiguchi M, Peak S, Sullivan M, Protheroe AS, Macaulay VM (2009) Validation of the type 1 insulin-like growth factor receptor as a therapeutic target in renal cancer. Molecular cancer therapeutics 8: 1448-59
  22. Reid A.H, Protheroe A, Attard G, Hayward N, Vidal L, Spicer J, Shaw HM, Bone EA, Carter J, Hooftman L, Harris A, De Bono JS (2009) A first-in-man phase i and pharmacokinetic study on CHR-2797 (Tosedostat), an inhibitor of M1 aminopeptidases, in patients with advanced solid tumors. Clin Cancer Res 15: 4978-85
  23. Blagden, S.P., Molife, L.R., Seebaran, A., Payne, M., Reid, A.H., Protheroe, A.S., Vasist, L.S., Williams, D.D., Bowen, C., Kathman, S.J., Hodge, J.P., Dar, M.M., de Bono, J.S. & Middleton, M.R. (2008). A phase I trial of ispinesib, a kinesin spindle protein inhibitor, with docetaxel in patients with advanced solid tumours. Br J Cancer, 98, 894-899
  24. Patel, P.M., Sim, S., O'Donnell, D.O., Protheroe, A., Beirne, D., Stanley, A., Tourani, J.M., Khayat, D., Hancock, B., Vasey, P., Dalgleish, A., Johnston, C., Banks, R.E. & Selby, P.J. (2008). An evaluation of a preparation of Mycobacterium vaccae (SRL172) as an immunotherapeutic agent in renal cancer. Eur J Cancer, 44, 216-23
  25. Yuen, J.S., Cockman, M.E., Sullivan, M., Protheroe, A., Turner, G.D., Roberts, I.S., Pugh, C.W., Werner, H. & Macaulay, V.M. (2007). The VHL tumor suppressor inhibits expression of the IGF1R and its loss induces IGF1R upregulation in human clear cell renal carcinoma. Oncogene, 26, 6499-508.
  26. Rochester, M.A., Patel, N., Turney, B.W., Davies, D.R., Roberts, I.S., Crew, J., Protheroe, A. & Macaulay, V.M. (2007). The type 1 insulin-like growth factor receptor is over-expressed in bladder cancer. BJU Int, 100, 1396-401
  27. Ponchel, F., Verburg, R.J., Bingham, S.J., Brown, A.K., Moore, J., Protheroe, A., Short, K., Lawson, C.A., Morgan, A.W., Quinn, M., Buch, M., Field, S.L., Maltby, S.L., Masurel, A., Douglas, S.H., Straszynski, L., Fearon, U., Veale, D.J., Patel, P., McGonagle, D., Snowden, J., Markham, A.F., Ma, D., van Laar, J.M., Papadaki, H.A., Emery, P. & Isaacs, J.D. (2005). Interleukin-7 deficiency in rheumatoid arthritis: consequences for therapy-induced lymphopenia. Arthritis Res Ther, 7, R80-92.
  28. Illing, R.O., Kennedy, J.E., Wu, F., ter Haar, G.R., Protheroe, A.S., Friend, P.J., Gleeson, F.V., Cranston, D.W., Phillips, R.R. & Middleton, M.R. (2005b). The safety and feasibility of extracorporeal high-intensity focused ultrasound (HIFU) for the treatment of liver and kidney tumours in a Western population. Br J Cancer, 93, 890-5.
  29. Madhusudan, S., Protheroe, A., Propper, D., Han, C., Corrie, P., Earl, H., Hancock, B., Vasey, P., Turner, A., Balkwill, F., Hoare, S. & Harris, A.L. (2003). A multicentre phase II trial of bryostatin-1 in patients with advanced renal cancer. Br J Cancer, 89, 1418-22.
  30. Protheroe, A.S., Pickard, C., Johnson, P.W., Craddock, T., Shefta, J., Short, K., Lancaster, F., Selby, P.J., Henwood, J. & Boylston, A.W. (2000). Persistence of clonal T-cell expansions following high-dose chemotherapy and autologous peripheral blood progenitor cell rescue. Br J Haematol, 111, 766-73.
  31. Protheroe, A.S., Banks, R.E., Southgate, J., Mzimba, M., Singh, P., Bosomworth, M., Harnden, P., Smith, P.H., Whelan, P. & Selby, P.J. (1999). The role of urinary E-Cadherin as a marker of invasive bladder cancer. British Journal of Cancer, 80, 273-276.
  1. Bhatt J, Cowan N, Protheroe A, Crew J. Recent advances in urinary bladder cancer detection. Expert Rev Anticancer Ther. 2012 Jul;12(7):929-39.
  2. Chitnis M.M., Yuen J.S., Protheroe A.S., Pollak M., Macaulay V.M. (2008) The type 1 insulin-like growth factor receptor pathway. Clin Cancer Res 14: 6364-70
  3. Khan, O. & Protheroe, A.S. (2007). Testis cancer. Postgrad Med J, 83, 624-32
  4. Muthuramalingam, S.R., Patel, K. & Protheroe, A.S. (2004). Management of patients with hormone refractory prostate cancer. Clin Oncol (R Coll Radiol), 16, 505-16.
  5. Chester, J.D., Hall, G.D., Forster, M. & Protheroe, A.S. (2004). Systemic chemotherapy for patients with bladder cancer--current controversies and future directions. Cancer Treat Rev, 30, 343-58.
  6. Protheroe, A.S. & Johnson, P.W. (1996). High-dose chemotherapy with stem cell rescue for solid tumours. Br J Hosp Med, 55, 437-41.
Case reports
  1. Fairfax BP, Pratap S, Roberts IS, Collier J, Kaplan R, Meade AM, Ritchie AW, Eisen T, Macaulay VM, Protheroe A. Fatal case of sorafenib-associated idiosyncratic hepatotoxicity in the adjuvant treatment of a patient with renal cell carcinoma. BMC Cancer. 2012 Dec 11;12:590.
  2. Prematilleke I, Mohan V, Roberts I, Protheroe A, Gatter K. Blastic plasmacytoid dendritic cell neoplasm presenting as renal mass. Histopathology. 2011 Oct:59(4):799-801.
  3. Matthews PC, Lazarus R, Protheroe A, Milford C, Bowler IC. Acute necrotizing sinusitis caused by Staphylococcus lugdunensis. J Clin Microbiol. 2011 Jul:49(7):2740-2.
  4. Pwint TP, Macaulay V, Roberts IS, Sullivan M, Protheroe A., (2009) An adult Xp11.2 translocation renal carcinoma showing response to treatment with sunitinib. Urol Oncol.
  5. Jafri M., Protheroe A.S. (2008) Cisplatin-associated thrombosis. Anticancer Drugs 19: 927-9
  6. Jafri, M., Protheroe, A.S. (2008) An update on a case of regression of lung metastases after radiotherapy for bone metastasis in renal cell carcinoma. Clin Oncol (R Coll Radiol), 20, 316
  7. Warakaulle, D.R., Phillips, R.R., Turner, G.D., Davies, D. & Protheroe, A.S. (2004). Malignant monotypic epithelioid angiomyolipoma of the kidney. Clin Radiol, 59, 849-52
  8. Protheroe, A.S., Edwards, J.C., Simmons, A., Maclennan, K. & Selby, P. (1999). Remission of inflammatory arthropathy in association with anti-CD20 therapy for non-Hodgkin's lymphoma. Rheumatology (Oxford), 38, 1150-2
  9. Eden, C.G., Adamson, A. & Protheroe, A.S. (1995). An unusual case of cholesterol emboli post-revascularisatoin procedure-Trash penis. Br J Urol, 75, 675-6
  10. Parkers, P.J., Harland, S.P. & Protheroe, A.S. (1995). Subdural empyema in an HIV positive patient. Br J Neurosurg, 9, 85-6


  1. Problem Solving in Oncology.
    O’Donnell, D.O., Leahy, M., Marples, M., Protheroe, A.S., Selby, P. (2007).
  2. Key Topics in Oncology.
    Hall G.D., Patel P,M, Protheroe A.S.,
    Bios Scientific Publishers Ltd.  1997.

Contact Prof. Andrew Protheroe