What is cancer?
The human body is made up of billions of cells, which normally grow and multiply in an orderly way, with new cells being created only when and where they’re needed. In cancer, this orderly process goes wrong and cells begin to grow and multiply uncontrollably.
Exactly what triggers this growth is unknown; however, there are certain risk factors that can increase the chances of the condition developing, such as smoking and obesity.
We treat the following conditions:
Bladder cancer is where a growth of abnormal tissue, known as a tumour, develops in the bladder lining. In some cases, the tumour spreads into the surrounding muscle.
The most common symptom of bladder cancer is blood in your urine, which is usually painless. Once diagnosed, bladder cancer can be classified by how far it has spread. If the cancerous cells are contained inside the lining of the bladder, doctors describe it as non-muscle-invasive bladder cancer. This is the most common type of bladder cancer, accounting for 7 out of 10 cases. Most people don’t die as a result of this type of bladder cancer.
When the cancerous cells spread beyond the lining, into the surrounding muscles of the bladder, it’s referred to as muscle-invasive bladder cancer. This is less common, but has a higher chance of spreading to other parts of the body and can be fatal.
If bladder cancer has spread to other parts of the body, it’s known as locally advanced or metastatic bladder cancer.
Prostate cancer is the most common cancer in men in the UK, with over 40,000 new cases diagnosed every year. It usually develops slowly, so there may be no signs you have it for many years.
Symptoms often only become apparent when your prostate is large enough to affect the urethra (the tube that carries urine from the bladder to the penis). When this happens, you may notice things like an increased need to urinate, straining while urinating and a feeling that your bladder has not fully emptied.
These symptoms should not be ignored, but they do not mean you definitely have prostate cancer. It is more likely that they are caused by something else, such as benign prostatic hyperplasia (also known as BPH or prostate enlargement).
The prostate is a small gland in the pelvis found only in men. About the size of a satsuma, it’s located between the penis and the bladder and surrounds the urethra.
The main function of the prostate is to help in the production of semen. It produces a thick white fluid that is mixed with the sperm produced by the testicles, to create semen.
When cancer does develop in the prostate the majority of cases are localised to within the prostate or just outside. Sometimes the cancer will spread outside of the prostate gland.
Kidney cancer is the eighth most common cancer in adults in the UK, with just over 10,000 people diagnosed each year.
Signs and symptoms of kidney cancer can include:
- Blood in your urine
- a constant pain in your side, just below the ribs
- a lump or swelling in the kidney area (on either side of the body)
See your GP as soon as possible if you experience any of these symptoms. They will examine you and may refer you to a specialist clinic for further tests. In around half of all cases of kidney cancer there are no symptoms, and the condition is detected during tests for other unrelated conditions.
The kidneys are two bean-shaped organs located on either side of the body, just underneath the ribcage. Their main role is to filter out waste products from the blood, in addition to producing urine. Only one of the kidneys is usually affected by cancer.
Kidney cancer most frequently affects people over 50 years of age and is more common among men.
Cancer of the testicle is one of the less common cancers and tends to mostly affect men between 15 and 49 years of age. The most common symptom is a painless lump or swelling in one of the testicles. It can be the size of a pea or it may be much larger.
Other symptoms can include:
- a dull ache in the scrotum
- a feeling of heaviness in the scrotum
It’s important to be aware of what feels normal for you. Get to know your body and see your GP if you notice any changes. The testicles are the two oval-shaped male sex organs that sit inside the scrotum on either side of the penis. The testicles are an important part of the male reproductive system because they produce sperm and the hormone testosterone, which plays a major role in male sexual development.
Cancer of Unknown Origin
Carcinoma of unknown primary (CUP) is a rare disease in which malignant (cancer) cells are found in the body but the place the cancer began is not known. Cancer can form in any tissue of the body. The primary cancer (the cancer that first formed) can spread to other parts of the body. This process is called metastasis.
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